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Artikel Thrombophlebitis

Artikel Thrombophlebitis Artikel Thrombophlebitis BLOG HIMA KARDIOVASKULER: Makalah Plebitis

Artikel Thrombophlebitis Thrombose, Thrombophlebitis und was ist der Unterschied

By continuing to browse this site you agree to us using cookies as described in About Cookies. Previous article in issue: Effect of patient safety strategies on the incidence of adverse events. Phlebitis is a common and painful complication of peripheral intravenous cannulation.

The aim of this review was to identify the measures used in infusion phlebitis assessment and evaluate evidence regarding their reliability, validity, responsiveness Artikel Thrombophlebitis feasibility. All English-language studies randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort and cross-sectional that Artikel Thrombophlebitis an infusion phlebitis scale were retrieved and analysed to determine which Artikel Thrombophlebitis were included in each scale and how these were measured.

Infusion phlebitis was the primary outcome measure in studies, Artikel Thrombophlebitis. We identified 71 different phlebitis assessment scales.

Three scales had undergone some psychometric analyses, but no scale had been rigorously tested, Artikel Thrombophlebitis. Many phlebitis scales exist, but none has been thoroughly validated for use in clinical practice.

A lack of consensus on phlebitis measures has Artikel Thrombophlebitis contributed to disparities in reported phlebitis incidence, precluding meaningful comparison of phlebitis rates. The insertion of a peripheral intravenous cannula PIVC for intravenous IV fluids and medications is the most common procedure in hospitalized patients worldwide [ 1 ]. A frequent PIVC complication is phlebitis, that is, inflammation of the vein, which may be mechanical, chemical or bacterial in origin [ 2, 3 Varizen und lichenie. Artikel Thrombophlebitis causes a cascade of unwelcome repercussions — significant pain, failure of the PIVC, interruption to prescribed therapy and requirement for Artikel Thrombophlebitis of a new PIVC with associated increased equipment costs and staff time.

Phlebitis compromises future venous access [ 4 ], and untreated bacterial phlebitis may lead to bloodstream infection [ 5 ]; therefore, early detection of complications and removal of the PIVC is crucial, Artikel Thrombophlebitis. Phlebitis may be localized to the insertion site or travel Artikel Thrombophlebitis the vein. If extravasation also called infiltration of fluids in the interstitial space occurs [ 6 ], Artikel Thrombophlebitis, oedema may prevent recognition of phlebitis symptoms, such as induration hardened tissue Artikel Thrombophlebitis, because of difficulty in palpating the vein, Artikel Thrombophlebitis.

Phlebitis may occur during catheterization or up to 48 hours after removal [ 7 ]. This review is intended to inform clinicians about existing methods of phlebitis assessment, based on evidence of the measurement quality of existing assessment scales.

Research studies randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort and cross-sectional that reported phlebitis incidence in adult patients with PIVCs or that evaluated a phlebitis scale were included, Artikel Thrombophlebitis. No Artikel Thrombophlebitis limitations were applied, with citations published until Artikel Thrombophlebitis included. Titles and abstracts were initially screened for relevance. Full texts of potentially relevant articles were obtained and evaluated for inclusion.

The reference lists of these articles were checked for other studies of potential relevance, and these were also retrieved. All articles that examined infusion phlebitis assessment in adults as a primary outcome measure were retrieved, but only Artikel Thrombophlebitis that Artikel Thrombophlebitis a phlebitis assessment scale were included in the Lauf Wunden an den Beinen Behandlung Artikel Thrombophlebitis. Each scale was Artikel Thrombophlebitis to identify which signs and symptoms were included in the measurement of phlebitis.

The role of the phlebitis assessor, how often assessment was performed and if training in phlebitis assessment had been provided were noted. Information regarding each scale's psychometric properties, if provided, was also recorded.

Relevant measurement properties for phlebitis assessment include reliability inter-rater, intra-rater, test—retestvalidity content, face, criterion, construct and responsiveness, Artikel Thrombophlebitis. Because phlebitis scales are formative indexes rather than reflective scales [ 10, 11 ], neither internal consistency nor structural validity is relevant. In addition, our review also considered attributes associated with excellence in clinimetrics.

Feasibility takes into consideration such issues Artikel Thrombophlebitis length of time to complete the scale, ease of administration and clarity of the items and instructions [ 12 ]. Seventy-one phlebitis assessment Artikel Thrombophlebitis including 15 symptoms were identified.

The 15 symptoms included in phlebitis assessment scales were pain, tenderness, erythema or redness, oedema or swelling, Artikel Thrombophlebitis, palpable venous cord, induration or hardness, frank thrombosis, streak formation or red line, purulence or exudate, local warmth, local coolness, infusion slowed or stopped, fever or pyrexia, tissue damage and impaired function, Artikel Thrombophlebitis.

The prevalence Artikel Thrombophlebitis these symptoms captured in phlebitis assessment scales is shown in Fig. Large disparities were found among the 71 phlebitis assessment scales.

Some authors used a previously published scale; others modified an existing tool or created their own. When a published tool such as the Visual Infusion Phlebitis VIP [ 13, 14 ], Artikel Thrombophlebitis, Infusion Nurses Society INS [ ], Artikel Thrombophlebitis, Maddox [ 19, 20 ], Baxter [ 21 ], Lipman [ 22 ] Artikel Thrombophlebitis Dinley [ 23 ] scale was used, many authors did not state which version they had used, despite wide variations between different versions.

Other authors did not report the source of their scale at all. Assigning a phlebitis assessment score or grade was commonly performed in one of two ways. Phlebitis scores were either cumulative assigning points for each symptom and adding them up or progressive based on more points for a specified progression of symptoms. Cumulative scales scored 0—2 points for each phlebitis symptom, depending on the presence, measured length in centimetresor severity, and their total potential scores ranged from 0—6 to 0—7, Artikel Thrombophlebitis, to 0—9 and to 4— Total phlebitis grading also varied considerably for progressive scales, ranging from 0—2 to 0—6.

The symptoms required for phlebitis varied considerably. Only erythema was reported as a phlebitis symptom in every scale.

Several authors scored patients as positive for phlebitis with the finding of pain alone [ ], erythema alone [ 29, 30 ] or either [ ]. Some authors considered a palpable venous cord alone to be sufficient for phlebitis [ ], although the length of palpable cord required varied from 2.

Some authors measured local warmth objectively, using a differential thermometer [ ], but in most cases, temperature appeared to have been subjectively evaluated. Finally, some authors using progressive scores considered a patient had phlebitis when symptom severity met the criteria for a score of 1; others reported phlebitis only when severity scored as 2 or 3.

Not all authors reported phlebitis in the same way, Artikel Thrombophlebitis. Frequency of reported assessment ranged from every Wunden an seinem Bein Behandlung access for medication Artikel Thrombophlebitis infusion, to twice daily, daily or second daily assessment. A handful of studies reported continued phlebitis assessment after cannula removal up to 24 hours [ 24 ], 48 hours [ 7, 46 ] and 3 days [ 47 ].

One study reported follow up of patients until the phlebitis resolved; in one case of phlebitis, pain lasted for 5 months [ 48 ]. Assessors ranged from ward nurses, research nurses, experienced IV teams, medical students, doctors, to independent IV assessors.

Some researchers reported providing phlebitis assessment training to staff, but the majority did not. Although there are dozens of phlebitis assessment instruments, formal evaluations of their measurement properties are rare.

Several scales were Artikel Thrombophlebitis in multiple studies, such as the Baxter scale [ 21, 31, Artikel Thrombophlebitis, 33 ], the Dinley scale [ 23, Artikel Thrombophlebitis, 49, 50 ] and the Lipman scale [ 22, 51, 52 ], but appear never to have been formally Artikel Thrombophlebitis. This section describes the psychometric adequacy of those three scales: Campbell, [ 31 ].

Authors reported concurrent criterion validity, but actually tested convergent validity, Artikel Thrombophlebitis. As part of a randomized trial published inUS pharmacists, Maddox and colleagues [ 19 ] created a phlebitis assessment instrument to grade phlebitis presence and severity using six symptoms: Their report included no evaluation of the scale's reliability Artikel Thrombophlebitis validity.

During the s and early s, several researchers used the Maddox scale or a slightly modified version of it [ 27, Artikel Thrombophlebitis, 47, ], but psychometric assessments were still not reported. In the UK inJackson [ 14 ] published guidelines for scoring phlebitis based on an adaptation of the Maddox method and a scale developed by Lundgren and colleagues in [ 48 ], Artikel Thrombophlebitis, which was relabelled the VIP score. This scale grades phlebitis progressively from 1 no observable phlebitis symptoms to 6 advanced thrombophlebitisArtikel Thrombophlebitis, and each grade is associated with a recommended action e.

Neither Jackson nor other researchers who subsequently used the scale [ 13, 32, ] reported information about the scale's measurement properties. They monitored PIVCs in cardiac surgical patients in one hospital. Jackson's original grading from 1—6 was recalibrated to 0—5; a score of 5 indicated purulent Artikel Thrombophlebitis, redness and a palpable cord greater than 7, Artikel Thrombophlebitis.

Other modifications were not described in detail, although pyrexia as a symptom was removed. Despite modifying the scale, the authors continued to use the label of VIP Artikel Thrombophlebitis. Therefore, several versions of the VIP scale, including Jackson's original scale, are available and in use.

Inter-rater reliability was assessed by correlating each research nurse's VIP score with that of the principal investigator, a senior clinical nurse. The type of correlation Pearson's r, Spearman's rho, intraclass was unreported. The number of PIVC assessments included in Varizen Definition inter-rater reliability checks was also unreported.

However, inter-rater reliability was not computed between the nurses themselves, which is a more standard approach. A key unanswered question that remains is whether rating consistency across similarly trained observers can be achieved with this scale, Artikel Thrombophlebitis. Data on content validity, using a quantitative assessment of agreement such as the content validity index [ 68, 69 ], were not provided. The scale's Artikel Thrombophlebitis or construct validity was not discussed.

However, assessment of inter-rater reliability could be construed as testing criterion validity. The researchers also did not specifically assess construct validity. However, Artikel Thrombophlebitis evidence for the scale's adequacy is extremely limited. The reliability assessments did not establish that nurses could be consistent in their evaluations of phlebitis symptoms with each other inter-raternor with themselves intra-rater.

Test—retest reliability was not examined. The study yielded some information about criterion validity, but the VIP scale's specificity and sensitivity were not tested. Construct validity was not considered. Responsiveness — the ability to detect true changes in symptoms — was also not examined. Post-study, the hospital made a decision to adopt the VIP as a standardized assessment tool, which suggests they found it easy to use in clinical practice; however, no data regarding feasibility were provided.

The INS scale has changed over time, Artikel Thrombophlebitis, with the current version being a progressive score from 0 no symptoms to 4 all symptoms present: Any score of 1 or greater is considered phlebitis. Several studies included in the current review used an Artikel Thrombophlebitis tool based either on the INS scale or an adaptation [ 24, 25, 29, 30, 34, ]. Despite widespread use, the INS scale has had limited scrutiny for psychometric properties.

Boyce and Yee [ 24 ] adapted the INS scale and consulted a panel of 18 experienced nurses to assess the revised scale's face validity, resulting in several further changes to the tool. No other psychometric evaluation appears to have been undertaken by these authors. Washington and Barrett [ 74 ] reported assessing inter-rater reliability, but did not provide values. A more in-depth study by Groll and co-researchers [ 29 ] was undertaken in Canada to evaluate the psychometric properties of the most recent version of the INS phlebitis scale [ 16 ].

In the study, adults with a PIVC were recruited from Artikel Thrombophlebitis community hospital and a visiting home nursing agency. Pairs of independent research nurses who were Artikel Thrombophlebitis providing direct patient care undertook observations of patients.

No information regarding the training of the research nurses was provided, nor did the report state how many pairs of nurses performed ratings. The study aimed to yield evidence regarding the INS scale's reliability inter-ratervalidity, acceptability and feasibility.

Thrombosis is the process of a blood clot, What is Thrombosis? Den er formodenligt skrevet med en "Google-oversaettelse" fra en engelsk artikel.

Penetrasi yang dilakukan dekat ketika yg lebih bahari berpengaruh kembali dengan mungkin saja pencapaian orgasme yang lebih mengobral perihal — Artikel Thrombophlebitis inilah yang mendasari munculnya keluhan ejakulasi dini. Apabila pertanyaan masih Artikel Thrombophlebitis sanggup terpecahkan serta-merta menghubungi dokter spesialis andrologi Klinik apollo pada wawancara lebih lanjut di Hotline No.

Andrologi bagaimana mengatasi kulup panjang Apakah sunat sakit Metode sunat modern terkini hubungi Dokter Chatting gratis. Sabtu, 04 Januari Makalah Plebitis. Pembuluh darah terbagi menjadi arteri dan vena. Arteri adalah P embuluh darah yang berperan sebagai transportasi sel — sel darah yang mengandung oksigen darah bersih dari j antung menuju jaringan tubuh. Pembuluh darah vena merupakan tempat dalam pemberian cairan infus dan sering kali dalam pemberian infus terjadi suatu akibat berupa peradangan vena atau plebitis, Artikel Thrombophlebitis.

Plebitis sebagai salah satu permasalahan yang penting dibahas di samping itu plebitis juga sering ditemukan dalam proses keperawatan, Artikel Thrombophlebitis. Apa definisi dari Plebitis? Bagaimana anatomi pembuluh darah vena? Bagaimana patofisiologi dari Plebitis?

Apa saja penyebab dari Plebitis? Apa saja tanda atau gejala dari Plebitis? Agar pembaca mengetahui definisi, anatomi, patofisiologi, penyebab dan gejala dari plebitis, Artikel Thrombophlebitis. Penulis mengharapkan agar makalah ini dapat bermanfaat bagi pembaca dan juga seluruh mahasiswa Teknik Kardiovaskular bagi mahasiswa semester 3.

Plebitis adalah iritasi vena oleh alat IV, obat-obatan, atau infeksi yang ditandai dengan kemerahan, Artikel Thrombophlebitis, bengkak, nyeri tekan pada sisi IV. Plebitis merupakan inflamasi vena yang disebabkan baik oleh iritasi kimia maupun mekanik yang sering disebabkan oleh komplikasi dari Krampfadern Behandlung Kliniken in Moskau intravena.

Plebitis dapat menyebabkan trombus yang selanjutnya menjadi tromboplebitis, perjalanan penyakit ini biasanya jinak, Artikel Thrombophlebitis, tapi walaupun demikian jika trombus terlepas kemudian diangkut dalam aliran darah dan masuk jantung maka dapat menimbulkan seperti katup bola yang bisa menyumbat atrioventrikular secara mendadak dan menimbulkan kematian. Menurut Infusion Nurses Society INS phlebitis merupakan Artikel Thrombophlebitis pada tunika intima pembuluh darah vena, yang sering dilaporkan sebagai komplikasi pemberian terapi infus.

Peradangan didapatkan dari mekanisme iritasi yang terjadi pada endhothelium tunika intima vena, dan perlekatan tombosit pada area tersebut. P embuluh darah kecuali terdiri atas tiga lapisan yaitu: Tunika media, lapisan tengah, terdiri dari jaringan otot, sifatnya elastis dan termasuk otot polos.

Keduanya akan menyatu sebagai v. Setelah regio cubiti, vena-vena tersebut kembali membentuk v. Di dalam proses pembentukan plebitis terjadi peningkatan permeabilitas kapiler, dimana protein dan cairan masuk ke dalam intertisial, Artikel Thrombophlebitis.

Selanjutnya jaringan yang mengalami trauma teriritasi secara mekanik, kimia, dan bakteri. Sistem imun menyebabkan leukosit berkumpul pada bagian yang terinflamasi, Artikel Thrombophlebitis. Saat leukosit dilepaskan, pirogen juga merangsang sum-sum untuk melepaskan leukosit dalam jumlah besar.

Kemerahan dan ketegangan meningkat pada tahap plebitis. Pengklasifikasian plebitis menurut INS, Artikel Thrombophlebitis, yaitu plebitis kimia, plebitis mekanik Artikel Thrombophlebitis plebitis yang Artikel Thrombophlebitis oleh bacterial. Plebitis dapat diklasifikasikan dalam 3 tipe: Chemical phlebitis Plebitis kimia dihubungkan dengan bentuk respon yang terjadi pada tunika intima vena dengan bahan kimia yang menyebabkan reaksi peradangan.

Reaksi peradangan dapat terjadi akibat dari jenis cairan yang diberikan atau bahan material kateter yang digunakan. Chee dan Tan yang menegaskan bahwa faktor munculnya phlebitis dapat diakibatkan ketidak cocokan pencampuran obat dalam pembuluh darah. Cairan isototonik akan menjadi lebih hiperosmoler apabila ditambah dengan obat, elektrolit maupun nutrisi INS, Artikel Thrombophlebitis menerangkan bahwa beberapa cairan bisa dipergunakan dalam menjaga terjadinya cloting akibat bekuan darah pada slang dan jarum infus, Artikel Thrombophlebitis.

Sementara itu pemberian antikoagulan paling sesuai untuk keadaan deep thrombophlebitis, Artikel Thrombophlebitis, dimana tindakan pemberian obat harus Artikel Thrombophlebitis dan responden dalam keadaan istirahat total.

Semakin tinggi osmolaritas makin hipertonis makin mudah terjadi kerusakan pada dinding vena perifer seperti phlebitis, trombophebitis, Artikel Thrombophlebitis, dan tromboemboli. Bahan kateter yang terbuat dari polivinil klorida atau polietelin teflon mempunyai resiko terjadi phlebitis lebih besar dibanding bahan yang terbuat dari silikon atau poliuretan INS, Partikel materi yang terbentuk dari cairan atau campuran obat yang tidak sempurna diduga juga bisa menyebabkan resiko terjadinya phlebitis.

Penggunaan filter dengan ukuran 1 sampai dengan 5 mikron pada infus set, akan menurunkan atau meminimalkan resiko phlebitis akibat partikel materi yang terbentuk tersebut Darmawan, Plebitis mekanikal sering dihubungkan dengan pemasangan atau penempatan katheter IV.

Penempatan katheter pada area fleksi lebih sering menimbulkan Artikel Thrombophlebitis phlebitis, oleh karena pada saat ekstremitas digerakkan katheter yang terpasang ikut bergerak dan meyebabkan trauma pada dinding vena. Penggunaan ukuran katheter yang besar pada vena yang kecil juga dapat mengiritasi dinding vena. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Pltebitis bakteri faktor- faktor yang berkontribusi meliputi: Gejala yang terjadi pada plebitis yaitu nyeri yang terlokalisasi, pembengkakan, Artikel Thrombophlebitis, kulit kemerahan timbul dengan cepat di atas vena, pada saat diraba terasa hangat, panas suhu tubuh cukup tinggi.

Plebitis adalah suatu peradangan pada pembuluh darah vena yang di sebabkan karena iritasi kimia, mekanik dan bakteri. Artikel Thrombophlebitis di sertai dengan gejala nyeri yang terlokalisasi, Artikel Thrombophlebitis, pembengkakan, kulit kemerahan timbul dengan cepat di atas vena, pada saat diraba terasa hangat, panas suhu tubuh cukup tinggi. Diposting oleh Hima Kardiovaskuler di Unknown 11 Artikel Thrombophlebitis

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